Volcano type: Stratovolcano
Volcano number: 213021
Elevation: 4033 m
Distance to Ankara: ~860 km
Closest city: Erciş, ~45 km
Population within 5 km: 158
Population within 10 km: 8,090
Population within 30 km: 120,340
Population within 100 km: 1,759,980
Süphan Dağı is a large stratovolcano in eastern Turkey, to the north of Lake Van. It is one of several volcanoes that border Lake Van. Suphan Turkey's second highest volcano 4050 m in height distributes the summit. It is located in the northeast of Bitlis province Adilcevaz district, just north of Volkan Van Lake. The major settlement centers around the volcano are the Ahlat district of Bitlis province in the west, the Malazgirt district of Muş province in the north and the Erciş district of Van province in the east. Having a small glacier on its top, the volcano is the second highest stratovolcano in the Eastern Anatolia Region. The volcanic products of Mount Suphan cover large areas and some products reach into the Van Lake.
Süphan Dağı is Turkey's second highest volcano and has a icecap and significant winter snowfall. It is a basaltic to rhyolitic stratovolcano, with activity varying between viscous andesitic-dacitic lava flows and more fluid and thus extensive basaltic lavas, with these basaltic flows reaching 30 km from the summit. Numerous lava domes and pyroclastic cones are found on the flanks, with fewest on the western side. These have been erupted along both radial and ring fissures. Dacitic and rhyolitic lava domes formed at the summit at a later stage, one dated to about 64,000 years. Süphan activity was dated by Ozdemir and Gulec (2013) at 0.76 - 0.06 Ma.
Aygır Lake, which is a phreatomagmatic explosion product located in the south of Suphan is one of the important volcanic activities at the region.
Süphan Volkanı 3d görüntüsü ©Atıcı vd.,2020
Global Volcanism Program, 2013. Suphan Dagi (213021) in Volcanoes of the World, v. 4.7.7. Venzke, E (ed.). Smithsonian Institution. Downloaded 19 Apr 2019 (
Özdemir, Y. 2011. ‘’Volcanostratigraphy and petrogenesis of Süphan stratovolcano’’ Doktora Tezi. Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi.
Özdemir, Y., Oyan, V., Güleç, N. 2012. ‘’Süphan Volkanik Çığı’nın Jeolojik Özellikleri’’, Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 17 (1),1-5.
Özdemir, Y. Güleç, N., 2014. “Geological and Geochemical Evolution of the Quaternary Süphan Stratovolcano, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey: Evidence for the Lithosphere–Asthenosphere Interaction in Post-Collisional Volcanism” Journal of Petrology, Volume 55, Issue 1, January 2014, Pages 37–62, https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egt060.
Özdemir, Y., Akkaya, İ., Oyan, V., Kelfoun, K. 2016. “A debris avalanche at Süphan stratovolcano (Turkey) and implications for hazard evaluation”. Bull Volcanol, 78:2.
Yılmaz, Y., Guner, Y., Saroglu, F. 1998. ‘’Geology of the Quaternary volcanic centers of the east Anatolia’’, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 85, 173-210.